Keywords: Finland

The Convergence of Paganism and Christianity


“In the north of Europe, conversion was not a simple replacement of the old pagan religion with Christian belief; rather, a convergence of two living world views took place, creating for at least several centuries a composite with strong ties to the pagan past.” Originally Published: 31st International Congress on Medieval StudiesKalamazoo, Michigan 1996 Deborah […]

The Finnish Tradition: An Introduction

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 Table of Contents World View The Cosmic Gods Haltija: ‘The Invisible Nature’ Ukko-Ilmarinen: the Ruler of Wind, Rain, and Thunder Heavenly Bodies: the Sun and the Moon Water Spirits Fire Spirits Land Spirits Forest Spirits Spirits of the House and Farm Field Spirits  Emuu and Animal Beliefs Beer, the Heavenly King of the Forest Sacred […]